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(收集整理)高考阅读理解分类训练(一)  

2011-09-09 16:25:53|  分类: 高考真题研究 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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下面这第一篇也是我今天讲过的一片阅读文章,是2010高考广东卷A篇和B篇。

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C和D项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
When I was growing up in America, I was ashamed of my mother’s Chinese English. Because of her English, she was often treated unfairly. People in department stores, at banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously ,did not give her good service ,pretended not to
Understand her ,or even acted as if they did not hear her .
My mother has realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on phone to pretend I was she . I was forced to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rude to her. One time I had to call her stockbroker (股票经纪人). I said in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, “This is Mrs. Tan. . ”
And my mother was standing beside me ,whispering loudly, “Why he don’t send me cheek already two week lone. ”
And then , in perfect English I said : “I’m getting rather concerned . You agreed to send the check two weeks ago, but it hasn’t arrived. ”
Then she talked more loudly. “What he want? I come to New York tell him front of his boss. ” And so I turned to the stockbroker again, “I can’t tolerate any more excuse. If I don’t receive the check immediately , I am going to have to speak to your manager when I am in New York next week. ”
The next week we ended up in New York. While I was sitting there red-faced, my mother, the real Mrs. Tan, was shouting to his boss in her broken English.
When I was a teenager, my mother’s broken English embarrassed me. But now, I see it differently. To me, my mother’s English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It is my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, and full of observation and wisdom. It was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed ideas, and made sense of the world.
41. Why was the author’s mother poorly served? A. She was unable to speak good English.
B. She was often misunderstood.
C. She was not clearly heard.
D. She was not very polite.
答案:A
试题分析:由文中Because of her English, she was often treated unfairly. 可知
高考考点::考查事实细节
易错提醒:易错选B

42. From Paragorph 2, we know that the author was .
A. good a pretending
B. rude to the stockbroker
C. ready to help her mother
D. unwilling to phone for her mother
答案:D
试题分析:由文中 ‘I was forced to ask for information or even to yell at people who had been rude to her”可知
高考考点::考查故事细节
易错提醒:易错A

43. After the author made the phone call, .
A. they forgave the stockbroker
B. they failed to get the check
C. they went to New York immediately
D. they spoke to their boss at once
答案:B
试题分析:由文中 “I said in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing” 及 “If I don’t receive the check immediately , I am going to have to speak to your manager when I am in New York next week. ”和 “The next week we ended up in New York. ” 可推断出答案
高考考点::考查文章分析推测能力
易错提醒:易错选C

44. What does the author think of her mother’s English now?
A. It confuses her.
B. It embarrasses her.
C. It helps her understand the world.
D. It helps her tolerate rude people.
答案:C
试题分析:由文中最后一段But now, I see it differently. To me, --------and made sense of the world.
高考考点::考查分析推测能力
45. We can inter from the passage that ChineseEnglish .
A. is clear and natural to non-native speakers
B. is vivid and direct to non-native speakers
C. has a verv bad reputation in America
D. may bring inconvenience in America
45. 答案:D
试题分析:由文中作者母亲的经历可以推测出
高考考点::考查文章分析推断能力


B
When something goes wrong,it can be very satisfying to say,”Well,it’s so-and-so’s fault. ”or “I know I’m late,but it’s not my fault;the car broke down. ”It is probably not your fault,but once you form the habit of blaming somebody or something else for a bad situation,you are a loser. You have no power and could do nothing that helps change the situation. However,you can have great power over what happens to you if you stop focusing on whom to blame and start focusing on how to remedy the situation. This is the winner’s key to success.
Winners are great at overcoming problems. For example, if you were late because your car broke down, maybe you need to have your car examined more regularly. Or, you might start to carry along with you the useful phone numbers, so you could call for help when in need. For another example, if your colleague causes you problems on the job for lack of responsibility or ability, find ways of dealing with his irresponsibility or inability rather than simply blame the person. Ask to work with a different person, or don’t rely on the person. You should accept that the person. Ask to work with a different person, or don’t rely on this person. You should accept that the person is not reliable and find creative ways to work successfully regardless of how your colleague fails to do his job well.
This is what being a winner is all about—creatively using your skills and talents so that you are successful no matter what happens. Winners don’t have fewer problems in their lives; they have just as many difficult situations to face as anybody else. They are just better at seeing those problems as challenges and opportunities to develop their own talents. So, stop focusing on “whose fault it is. ” Once you are confident about your power over bad situations, problems are just stepping stop on for success.
46. According to the passage, winners .
A. deal with problems rather than blame others
B. meet with fewer difficulties in their livesC. have responsible and able colleagues
D. blame themselves rather that others
答案:A
试题分析:由第一段“However, you can have great power over what happens to you if you stop focusing on whom to blame and start focusing on how to remedy the situation. ”可知
高考考点::考查文章大意概括及分析
47. The underlined word remedy in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to .
A. avoid
B. accept
C. improve
D. consider
答案:C
试题分析:由第一段最后两句可知
高考考点::考查推断能力

48. When your colleague brings about a problem, you should .
A. find a better way to handle the problem
B. blame him for his lack of responsibility
C. tell him to find the cause of the problem
D. ask a more able colleague for help
48. 答案:A
试题分析:由第二段if your colleague causes you problems on the job for lack of responsibility or ability, find ways of dealing with his irresponsibility or inability rather than simply blame the person. 可知
高考考点::考查细节理解
易错提醒:易错选C
49. When problems occur, winners take them as
A. excuses for their failures
B. barriers to greater power
C. challenges to their colleagues
D. chances for self-development
49. 答案:D
试题分析:文中最后一段. Winners don't have fewer problems in their lives; they have just as many difficult situation to face as anybody else.
高考考点::考查细节分析理解
易错提醒:易错选 C

50. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
A. A Winner’s Secret. B. A Winner’s Problem.
C. A Winner’s Opportunity. D. A Winner’s Achievement.
50. 答案:A
试题分析:由文章的重点句:第二段开头句,第三段开头句等分析概括可知A最合适
高考考点::考查文章大意概括能力
易错提醒:易选错B


C
Food sometimes gets poisoned with harmful things. A person who eats such food can get an illness called food poisoning. Food poisoning is usually not serious, but some types are deadly. The symptoms of food poisoning usually begin within hours of eating the poisoned food. Fever is one of the most common symptoms.
Certain microorganisms(微生物)cause most types of food poisoning. Bacteria and other microorganisms can poison eggs, meat, vegetables, and many other foods. After entering the body, these tiny living things release(释放)poisons that make people sick.
Some chemicals can also cause food poisoning. They are often added to food while it is being grown, processed, or prepared. For example, many farmers spray chemicals on crops to kill weeds and insects. Some people may have a bad reaction to those chemicals when they eat the crops.
Some plants and animals contain natural poisons that are harmful to people. These include certain kinds of seafood, grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and mushrooms.
When people handle food properly, the risk of food poisoning is very small. Microorganisms multiply rapidly in dirty places and in warm temperatures. This means that people should never touch food with dirty hands or put food on unwashed surfaces. Food should be kept in a refrigerator to stop microorganisms from growing. Meat needs to be cooked thoroughly to kill any dangerous microorganisms. People should also wash food covered with chemicals before eating it. Finally, people should not eat wild mushrooms or other foods that grow in the wild. Some of these foods may contain natural materials that are poisonous to humans. In addition, some types of fish can be poisonous.
Most people recover from food poisoning after a few days of resting and drinking extra water. If people eat natural poisons, they must go to the hospital right away to have their stomachs emptied.
51. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Food when poisoned can make people sick.
B. Food poisoning means death.
C. Food poisoning comes in varieties.
D. Food poisoning can be serious.
51. 答案:B
试题分析:由第一段中 “Food poisoning is usually not serious, but some types are deadly. ”可知
高考考点::考查细节分析
易错提醒:易错选C

52. We know from the passage that the symptoms of food poisoning .
A. are always accompanied by a fever
B. are too common to be noted
C. can be noticed within hours
D. can he ignored
52. 答案:C
试题分析:由第一段最后两句话可知
高考考点::考查学生细节分析能力
易错提醒:易错选A

53. Food poisoning can be caused by all the following EXCEPT .
A. some chemicals
B. low temperatures
C. some tiny living things
D. certain natural materials
53. 答案:B
试题分析:由第五段Food should be kept in a refrigerator to stop microorganisms from gnawing. 可知low temperatures不能导致Food poisoning
高考考点::考查事实细节分析理解
易错提醒:易错选C

54. From Paragraph 5,we can learn that .
A. mushrooms should not be eaten
B. vegetables are safer than meat and seafood
C. natural poisons are more dangerous than chemicals
D. different types of food should be handled differently
答案:D
试题分析:由第五段第一句话可以推测出D恰当,A太绝对B。C无细节支持
高考考点::考查推测分析能力
易错提醒:易选错C
55. It can be inferred from the passage that .
A. natural materials are safe in food processing
B. chemicals are needed in food processing
C. food poisoning can be kept under control
D. food poisoning is out of control
55. 答案:C
试题分析:由文中第五段第一句话可推测出C正确
高考考点::考查推测能力
易错提醒:易错选A


(10江苏)
A
Usually, when your teacher asks a question, there is only one correct answer. But there is one question that has millions of current answers. That question is “What’s your name?” Everyone gives a different answer, but everyone is correct.
Have you ever wondered about people’s names? Where do they come from? What do they mean?
People’s first names, or given names, are chosen by their parents. Sometimes the name of a grandparent or other member of the family is used. Some parents choose the name of a well-known person. A boy could be named George Washington Smith; a girl could be named Helen Keller Jones.
Some people give their children names that mean good things. Clara means “bright”; Beatrice means “one who gives happiness”; Donald means “world ruler”; Leonard means “as brave as a lion”.
The earliest last names, or surnames, were taken from place names. A family with the name Brook or Brooks probably lived near brook(小溪);someone who was called Longstreet probably lived on a long, paved road. The Greenwood family lived in or near a leafy forest.
Other early surnames came from people’s occupations. The most common occupational name is Smith, which means a person who makes things with iron or other metals. In the past, smiths were very important workers in every town and village. Some other occupational names are: Carter — a person who owned or drove a cart; Potter —a person who made pots and pans.
The ancestors of the Baker family probably baked bread for their neighbors in their native village. The Carpenter’s great-great-great-grandfather probably built houses and furniture.
Sometimes people were known for the color of their hair or skin, or their size, or their special abilities. When there were two men who were named John in the same village, the John with the gray hair probably became John Gray. Or the John was very tall could call himself John Tallman. John Fish was probably an excellent swimmer and John Lightfoot was probably a fast runner or a good dancer.
Some family names were made by adding something to the father’s name. English-speaking people added –s or –son. The Johnsons are descendants of John; the Roberts family’s ancestor was Robert. Irish and Scottish people added Mac or Mc or O. Perhaps all of the MacDonnells and the McDonnells and the O’Donnells are descendants of the same Donnell.
56. Which of the following aspects do the surnames in the passage NOT cover?
A. Places where people lived.
B. People’s characters.
C. Talents that people possessed.
D. People’s occupations.
选B,根据文中4,5,6三段可知只有B选项未提及
57. According to the passage, the ancestors of the Potter family most probably _______.
A. owned or drove a cart
B. made things with metals
C. made kitchen tools or contains
D. built houses and furniture
选C文中第六段potter-a person who made pots and pans,可知potter 意为一个制作茶壶和平底锅的人,由此推断选C
58. Suppose and English couple whose ancestors lived near a leafy forest wanted their new-born son to become a world leader, the baby might be named _______.
A. Beatrice Smith
B. Leonard Carter
C. George Longstreet
D. Donald Greenwood
选D根据文中倒数第2段可知一些人取名是根据特征而来。比如灰色头发的人取名john Gray,高个的人取名john Tallman. 所以根据题意,居住在森林旁边的人取名为Donald Greenwood
59. The underlined word “descendants” in the last paragraph means a person’s _____.
A. later generations
B. friends and relatives
C. colleagues and partners
D. later sponsors
选A 根据最后一段第一二行“some family names were made by adding something to the father’s name. The Johnsons are descendants of John可知descendants指的是后代


B
It is reported that conservation groups in North America have been arguing about the benefits and dangers of wolves. Some groups believe wolves should be killed. Other people believe wolves must be protected so that they will not disappear from the wilderndss(荒野)
For Killing Wolves
In Alaska,the wolf almost disappeared a few years ago,because hunters were killing hundreds 0f them forsport . However.1aws were established to protect the wolves from sportsmen and people who catch the animals for their fur.So the woIf population has greatly increased. Now there are so many wolves that they are destroying their own food supply.
A wolf naturally eats animals in the deer family. People in the wilderness also hunt deer for food.Many of the animals have been destroyed by the very cold winters recently and by changes in the wilderness plant life.When the deer can’t find enough food,they die.
If the wolves continue to kill large numbers of deer,their prey(猎物)will disappear some day.And the wolves will.too.So we must change the cycle of life in the wilderness to balance the ecology.If we killed more wolves,we would save them and their prey from dying out.We’d also save some farm animals.
In another northern state,wolves attack cows and chickens for food.Farmers want the government to send biologists to study the problem.They believe it necessary to kill wolves in some areas and to protect them in places where there is a small woIf population.
Against Killing Wolves
If you had lived long ago,you would have heard many different stories about the dangerous wolf.According to most stories,hungry wolves often kill people for food.Even today,the stories of the“big bad woIf'"will not disappear.
But the fact is wolves are afraid of people.and they seldom travel in areas where there is a human smell.When wolves eat other animals,they usually kill the very young.or the sick and injured . The strongest survive . No kind of animal would have survived through the centuries if the weak members had lived.And has always been a law of nature.
Although some people say it is good sense to kill wolves,we say it is nonsense!Researchers have found wolves and their prey living in balance.The wolves keep the deer population from becoming too large,and that keeps a balance in the wilderness plant life.
The real problem is that the areas where wolves can live are being used bv people.Even if wilderness land is not used directly for human needs.the wolves can’t always find enough food . So they travel to the nearest source,which is often a farm.Then there is danger.The“big bad wolf”has arrived! And everyone knows what happens next.
60.According to the passage,some people in North America favor killing wolves for all the following reasons EXCET that .
A.there are too many wolves
B.they kill large numbers deer
C.they attack cows and chickens for food
D.they destroy the wilderness plant life
选D根据文中小标题For killing wolves 第一段第三行“so the wolf population has increased”第三段第一句和第四段第一句话,可知选项D不是原因
61.Some people are against killing wolves because .
A.wolves help to keep the ecological balance in the wildemess
B.there is too small a wolf population in the wilderness
C.there are too many deer in the wilderness
D.wolves are afraid of people and never attack people
选A小标题Against killing wolves 中第三段最后一句
62.According to those against killing wolves,when wolves eat other animals, .
A.they never eat strong and healthy onesB.they always go against the law of nature
C.they might help this kind of animals survive in nature
D.they disturb the ecological balance in the wilderness
选C 小标题Against killing wolves 中第二段最后两行可知强者生存,弱者淘汰是自然法则
63.The last sentence“And everyone knows what happens next”implies that in such cases .
A.farm animals will be in danger and have to be shipped away
B.woIves will kill people and people will in turn kill them
C.wolves will find enough food sources on farms
D.people will leave the areas where wolves can live
选B 文中最后一段可知狼居住的地方被人类占据,它们就会跑到就近的农场等地吃人,那么人类就会反过来杀死它们


D
Imagine,one day,getting out of bed in Beijing and being at your office in Shanghai in only a couple of hours,and then,after a full day of work,going back home to Beijing and having dinner there.
Sounds unusual,doesn't it? But it's not that unrealistic,with the development of China’s high—speed railway system.And that’s not a11.China has an even greater high—speed railway plan—to connect the country with Southeast Asia,and eventually Eastern Europe.
China is negotiating to extend its own high?-speed railway network to up to 17 countries in 1 0 to 15 years,eventually reaching London and Singapore.
China has proposed three such projects The first would possibly connect Kunming with Singapore via Vietnam and Malaysia.Another could start in Urumqi and go through Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan,and possibly to Germany.The third would start in the northeast and go north through Russia and then into Western Europe.
If China’s plan for the high-speed railway goes forward,people could zip over from London to Beiling in under two days.
The new system would still follow China’s high—speed railway standard.And the trains would be able to go 346 kilometers an hour,almost as fast as some airplanes.
China’s bullet train(高速客车),the one connecting Wuhan to Guangzhou,already has the World’s fastest average speed.It covers 1,069 kilometers in about three hours.
Of course,there are some technical challenges to overcome.There are so many issues that need to be settled,such as safety,rail gauge(轨距),maintenance of railway tracks.So,it’s important to pay attention to every detail.
But the key issue is really money.China is already spending hundreds of billions of yuan on domestic railway expansion.
China prefers that the other countries pay in natural resources rather than with capital investment.Resources from those countries could stream into China to sustain development.
It’11 be a win-win project. For other countries,the railway network will definitely create more opportunities for business,tourism and so on,not to mention the better communication among those countnes.
For China,such a project would not only connect it with the rest of Asia and bring some much-needed resources,but would also help develop China’s far west.We foresee that in the coming decades,millions of people will migrate to the western regions,where the land is empty and resources unused.With high-speed trains,people will set up factories and business centers in the west once and for a11.And they’11 trade with Central Asian and Eastern European countries.
67.China’s new high-speed railway plan will be a win-win project because .
A.China will get much-needed resources and develop its western regions
B.China and the countries involved will benefit from the project in various ways
C.China will develop its railway system and communication with other countries
D. the foreign countries involved will develop their railway transportation,business and tourism
选B在文章倒数第二段中有明确答案
68.According to the passage,the greatest challenge to the new high-speed railway plan is .
A.technical issues
B.safety of the systemC.financial problems
D.maintenance of railway tracks
选C . 在文章第8段看到 There are so many issues that need to be settled. . . 及第9节中 But the key issue is really money

69.Which of the following words best describes the author’s attitude towards China’s high-speed railway plan?
A.Critical. B.Reserved. C.Doubtful D. Positive.
选D . 尽管在文章第8,9段中 提到存在的问题,但从最后两段中不难看出作者是持支持的态度

70.Which of the following might be the best title for the passage?
A.New Railway Standards
B.Big Railway Dreams
C.High—speed Bullet Trains
D.International Railway Network
选B. 贯穿全文须知这只是一个梦想

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