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【引用】谈谈词汇复习对阅读理解解题的重要性  

2011-08-05 08:23:56|  分类: 他山之石 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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                            谈谈词汇复习对阅读理解解题的重要性

                                                                       佳中

 

    我在考研英语辅导中常发现有不少学生其实对阅读文章都看懂了,题却做错了。究其原因不外有两点。1)被选项所干扰;2)对正确选项中的关键词不认识或错误理解。说真的,对大多数考生来说,因看不懂文章而做错题其实是很少的,错选大多是上述两原因造成的。从最近几年研究生英语考试真题的命题分析,不难发现考研英语阅读理解常用的一种命题手法就是1)在答案选项中设一关键词或词语来对应或替代出题处(题眼)的信息的关键词;2)在答案选项中设一关键词或词语概括文中出题处(题眼)的信息。由于不少考生在备考复习时,不太重视词汇复习,结果在做这类题时往往出错,丢了不少分,真的很冤呀。我们不妨先来看几个题例。

 

题例1:

我记得2003年考研第一篇阅读理解是讲网络情报的,文章第一段是引子,引出文章的话题:网络给情报间谍业带来了变化。段落如下:

Will Bill Donovan would have loved the Internet. The American spymaster who built the Office of Strategic Services in World War II and later laid the roots for the CIA was fascinated with information. Donovan believed in using whatever tools came to hand in the “great game” of espionage — spying as a “profession.” These days the Net, which has already re-made everyday pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan’s vocation as well.

 

这一段的中心句是最后一句:“These days the Net, which has already re-made everyday pastimes as buying books and sending mail, is reshaping Donovan’s vocation as well”。 句中关键词是reshape。像这样重要的地方肯定是要出题啰,考题是这样的:

 

   The emergence of the Net has __________.  (网络的出现已经__________)

     [A] received support from fans like Donovan. (得到像多诺万这样人的支持)

     [B] remolded the intelligence services.             (重塑了情报行业)

     [C] restored many common pastimes.             (恢复了许多平常的消遣)

     [D] revived spying as a profession.                 (复苏了间谍职业)

 

    这道题理解上应该很简单吧,但由于词汇变成了难题,当年只有28%的考生做对这道题。显然,关键是不少考生不知道remold的意思,mold作名词的基本意思是“模子”,作动词引申出“塑造”的意思,即有“shape”的意思,所以命题老师用remold 可替代了文中reshape的含义。大多考生不知道remold的意思,于是都选择[D]项。 看来[D]项的干扰性很强,revive 的意思是“苏醒”、“复活”,如冬眠的snakes 到了春天,它们就会revive。情报间谍业每时每刻都在进行,没有间断过,谈不上revive吧。这些选择[D]项的考生对revive的意思没有掌握好。

 

题例2:

同年考题第三篇阅读理解也有一道涉及词汇的的难题。这篇文章讲美国铁路公司合并引起了人们对铁路公司垄断的担忧,文章对此进行了评述。该文第二段是这样写的:

 

 Supporters of the new supersystems argue that these mergers will allow for substantial cost reductions and better coordinated service. Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks. But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grains, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.

 

第二段是谈论对铁路公司兼并是否会引起垄断的看法。铁路公司认为:不可能引起垄断,因为任何可能引起的威胁会被来自卡车的竞争消除(Any threat of monopoly, they argue, is removed by fierce competition from trucks)。公司货主则认为:对于长途旅行的大宗货物来说,如煤炭,化学制品和粮食,公路运输成本太高,因此铁路公司就会掐他们的脖子。(But many shippers complain that for heavy bulk commodities traveling long distances, such as coal, chemicals, and grains, trucking is too costly and the railroads therefore have them by the throat.)

试题中出了一道题,问公司货主对铁路行业合并的态度是什么?

 

      What is many captive shippers’ attitude towards the consolidation in the rail industry?

      [A] Indifferent.    (不关心的)

      [B] Supportive.    (支持的

      [C] Indignant.     (愤怒的)

      [D] Apprehensive.  (担忧的)

 

    从段中最后一句可以推导公司货主对铁路铁路行业合并会引起垄断是表示担忧的,担心铁路公司会掐他们的脖子呀。可是大多考生不知道apprehensive有“忧虑的”、“不安的”意思,结果只有16%的考生做对这道题。大多数考生选了[C] 项,indiganant 的意思是“愤怒的”、“义愤的”,表示非常的愤怒,语气比 angry、furious 更强。文中只是说货主们抱怨(complain), 没有到 “愤怒”的程度,不能选择[C]项indiganant。选项用apprehinsive这个词概括点明了公司货主们对铁路公司兼并是否会引起垄断的态度。要是选项中用worried 代替applrehensive,那么做对这道题的考生一定在90%以上,这就不是考研究生的试题啰。

 

 

通过上述两题例的讲述,同学们应该知道词汇复习是多么的重要了吧。2011年考研阅读理解试题中也有好几道题涉及词汇的题。我们不妨也来分析一下。

 

                                                                    (1)

The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.   

                                                                                                        (2011年第一篇第1段)

 

     We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert’s appointment has     

    [A] incurred criticism.                                    [B] raised suspicion.

    [C] received acclaim.                                    [D] aroused curiosity.

 

【解析】   第一篇是议论纽约爱乐乐团决定聘请Alan Gilbert作为下一任的音乐总监的文章。第一段是文章引子,说自从任命宣布后在古典音乐界引起了热议,但大部分人反应是积极的(For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least)。考试中在这里出了道题,问人们对Gilbert的任命的反应。选项中的acclaim 的意思是“称赞”、“为……喝采”,对应文中favorable的意思,因此很容易确定[C]项是正确答案。段中没有说“批评”、“怀疑”、“好奇”。不过有些考生因不知道acclaim 的词意而错选它项了。

 

                                                                    (2)

One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert’s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.” As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise.

                                                                                    (2011年第一篇第2段)

 

Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is

 [A] influential.                                            

 [B] modest.

 [C] respectable.                                      

 [D] talented.

 

【解析】 这道题有点难,问Tommasini 对新任音乐总监Gilbert的看法。段中说Tommasini是支持Gilbert的,称他是 “an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him”。这里的unpretentious 和formidable 的词意有几个考生能认识呢,这道题测考生联系上下文语境理解的能力。 从语篇分析,这个句子与上一个句子应该是递进关系(由even承上启下)。上一个句子说“这个任命之所以引起人们惊讶的原因是Gilbert并不是很有名气(comparatively little known)”,因此可以推断的Tommasini 对Gilbert的评价与名气不大相关。而且在下一句作者也说“这样去描述这个乐团的下一位指挥,至少对于时代的读者而言,这是一种苍白的表扬(paint priase)”。由此可以断定Tommasini虽然支持Gilbert,但的他的评价不可能是很高的,[B]项中的modest 正有符合这点。modest 有“适度的”、“适中的”、“不过分的”意思。不少考生只知道modest 是“谦虚的”意思,于是不敢选了,去选[A]项“indluential (有影响的)”、[C]项“repectable (令人震惊的)”或[D]项“talented (有才华的)”。

 

                                                            (3)

Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert.

                                                                                                 (2011年第一篇第4段)

 

According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings?

[A] They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.

[B] They are easily accessible to the general public.

[C] They help improve the quality of music.

[D] They have only covered masterpieces.

 

【解析】   这是一道细节判断题,问文中提到唱片(recording)的情况。作者在第四段说,There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today’s live performances; moreover, they can be “consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert. 段中提到唱片有四点优点:1)便宜;2)那里都能买到;3)艺术质量 比现在很多现场音乐会高;4)听众能选择听唱片的时间和地点。作者特别强调这些到处可以获得的唱片给传统的演出机构带来了危机。文中的available 和 availability 一定给考生很深的印象吧。掌握词意匹配法的考生一浏览选项,马上可以确定[B]项是正确答案,因为该选项中的accessible 与 available 是同义词。试题中用 accessible 替代 avaialbe。 “公众很容易得到唱片”就是唱片“available everywhere”意思。

 

                                                                (4)

One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert’s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.

                                                                                                   (2011年第一篇第5段)

 

Regarding Gilbert’s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels

[A] doubtful.                                               [B] enthusiastic.

[C] confident.                                              [D] puzzled.

 

【解析】   这是一道(作者)态度题。这类题命题老师常用一个形容词(或词语)来概括作者或文中提到某人对某一事情或问题的态度。无疑做这类题的关键是词意匹配。

    本题问作者Gilbert对激活爱乐乐团态度。作者在最后一段中说Gilbert对新音乐兴趣已经被广泛的关注,他借用古典音乐的批评家Alex Ross的评论表达了他对Gilbert在激活爱乐乐团方面的作用的看法。我们来看Rose的这段话:Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different, more vibrant organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America’s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract. Alex Ross认为Gilbert能够把爱乐乐团变成一个完全不同,更加有活力的组织。但是那种不同的性质也是什么呢?可能仅仅增加乐团演出的曲目是不够的,如果Gilbert和他的乐团要进步的话,他们就必须首先改变美国最古老的乐团(就是纽约爱乐乐团)同他们想吸引的新观众间的关系。一个“but …….”,一个“merely …… will bot be enough”,足以表示对Gilbert激活爱乐乐团的作用是不确定的,因此用doubtful来表达是最确切不过的了。[B]项是正确答案。

 

                                                                 (5)

When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29.

                                                                                                  (2011年第二篇第1段)

 

When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being

[A] arrogant.                                                  [B] frank.

[C] self-centered.                                          [D] impulsive.

 

    【解析】  题干问“McGee宣布离职时的举动可以描述为……”,考生可以很快定位在这两句话上:When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was  leaving “to pursue my goal of running a company. 这两话的意思是:八月份Liam McGee以总裁的身份从美国银行离职时,他的解释出人意料的直白。他没有用通常模糊的理由来遮掩他的离开,而是坦诚地讲他的离开是为了去追求他自己经营一家公司的目标。这道题不难吧,命题老师用“frank (直率的、坦诚的)”对应“straight up”和“Rather than ..... vague excuses”。

 

                                                           (6)

The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn Ferry,senior partner Dennis Carey :“I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”

                                                                                                          (2011年第二篇第4段)

 

     The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means

     [A] approved of.                                   [B] attended to.

     [C] hunted for                                      [D] guarded against.

 

      【解析】   这是一道典型的“词汇题”,阅读理解考试中有时也会对文中某个词汇命题,被测的词通常是一个需要考生根据上下文语境判断其在文中的意思。有两种情况:1)被测的词是考生不太熟悉词;2)被测的词是一个熟词,但在文中有引申意思。

    本题测的“poacch”,恐怕认识这个词同学为数不多。poacch 出现在第2 句:多年以来,经理们和猎头们都认同这样一个原则:最有吸引力的CEO候选人是那些需要poached的人。那么在文中是什么意思呢?我们来看下一句就能明白了。I can’t think of a single search I’ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first. (我所做的每一次的招聘中,董事会都要求我从那些在任的CEO中寻找人选。) 句中的“search”和“look at”是对poach的注释。[C]项的“hunt for”就是search的意思。poach 基本意思是“偷猎”,在文中则引申出“寻找”人选、去“挖”人选的意思。

 

                                                              (7)

The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media — such as television commercials and print advertisements – still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create "earned" media by willingly promoting it to friends, and a company may leverage “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. In fact,the way consumers now approach the process of making purchase decisions means that marketing's impact stems from a broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.

                                                                                                           (2011年第三篇第1段)

 

 Consumers may create “earned” media when they are

 [A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.

 [B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.

 [C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.

 [D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.

 

【解析】  这是一道细节题。根据“create earned media”可定位命题点是:Consumers passionate about a product may create "earned" media by willingly promoting it to friends. 句意是:痴迷于某种产品的消费者,可能会乐意将之推荐给朋友,从而为企业创造“无偿”(earned)媒介。试题将这个句子一折为二,一半当题干,一半当选项。当然要改一下,把passinate 改成 enthusiastic, 把willingly promosting it to friends 改成recommendint their favorite products。

 

                                                                     (8)

It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter – nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.”

                                                                                       (2011年第四篇第1段)  

 

 Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring

[A] temporary delight                                         

[B] enjoyment in progress

[C] happiness in retrospect                                  

[D] lasting reward

 

【解析】  这一段谈论Jennifer Senior对抚养孩子问题的看法。她的观点是:1)我们需要重新定义幸福:幸福不应该是一个个瞬间的快乐组合的可以被衡量的东西;我们应该把幸福视为一种过去式的状态(we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition);2)正是那些心绪沉重的时刻,日后却成为我们欢乐的源泉(the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight)。

四个选项的意思分别是:[A] 暂时的快乐;[B]逐漸逐漸的亨受;[C]回顾中的幸福; [D] 永久的回报。显然,[C]项happiness in retrospect 概括了Jennifer Senior对抚养孩子问题的看法。尽管抚养孩子的日子漫长难熬,令人筋疲力尽,但是日后却成为我们欢乐的源泉。命题老师用happiness in retrospect 指代can later be sources of intense gratification and delight。

    这道有点难,retrosspect 是大纲要求的词汇,可是有多少考生认识呢。

 

                                                                   (9)

In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kitten-killing ? It doesn’t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn’t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.

                                                                                                    (2011年第四篇第3段)

 

It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks

[A] are constantly exposed to criticism.

[B] are largely ignored by the media.

[C] fail to fulfill their social responsibilities.

[D] are less likely to be satisfied with their life.

 

【解析】   这道题是有难度的,主要是文字理解上有点“别扭”。段中有个对比,讲了对该不该生育孩子的不同反应。其实从词意匹配的角度解题,这道题应该说是容易的。 据题干中的chilless folks可确定题眼是:but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives.

     这句话理解上也是很麻烦的,意思是“那些不幸福的没有孩子的人却为这样的信息所困扰:“孩子是世上唯一最可珍惜的东西,很明显,正是没有孩子这一人生中的空白导直接导致了他们的痛苦”。 但不管你有没有看懂这句话,从匹配的角度可知道句中的are bothered with 对应[A]项中的are constantly exposed to; message对应 criticism。

 

 

2011年考研英语阅读理解中竟然有9道题与词汇有关,分析到这里,你应该知道我写着篇博文的目的了吧。不多说了,历年考研阅读理解真题中还有很多这样“词汇”题,建议你自己去分析体会,不过复习好词汇才是关键。

 

 

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